A Sustainable Bioeconomy: The Green Industrial Revolution

2019-01-09 编辑:Traveler 来源:springer

A Sustainable Bioeconomy: The Green Industrial Revolution
 


 
Contents (目录)
 
  
1 Legacy of Petroleum-Based Economy .. ..... ... ..... ..... .... 1 

1.1 Introduction ........................................ 1
1.2 Fast Facts About Fossil Fuels.............. .............2
1.3 Petroleum: The Fossil Fuel that Changed the World ........... 3
1.3.1 Petroleum Composition and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
1.3.2 Worldwide Production and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
1.3.3 Petroleum Refining Processes .................... ..6
1.3.4 Petroleum-BasedProducts.. ....... .... ... ........ 8
1.4 Prosperity from Black Gold, to Whom and at What Price . ...... 12 
1.4.1 Petroleum and Economic Prosperity: Producers Versus Consumers .........12 
1.4.2 Prosperity from Petroleum:The Other Side of the Story. . . 14 
1.4.3 The Petroleum Paradox...................... ....16
1.5 End of an Area: Environmental Disasters and Geopolitical Instability............17 
1.5.1 Serious Environmental Degradation ..... ............ 18
1.5.2 Corruption, Wars, and Geopolitical Instability .......... 23 
1.5.3 Last But Not Least Problem: Consumerism . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
References ............................................. 25 
 
2 Bioeconomy: The Path to Sustainability .. ..... ... ... ... ...... 29 

2.1 Introduction ........................................ 29
2.2 What Is Sustainable Bioeconomy?...... ..................30
2.3 The Shiftto Sustainable Bioeconomy..................... 31
2.3.1 Bioeconomy: Necessity or Luxury?................. 31
2.3.2 Raw Material Change.... ....................... 32
2.3.3 Sustainable Pro.tability from Bioeconomy . ........... 36
2.3.4 Leading Role of Science and Technology in the Transition.... .................39 
2.4 Bioeconomy and Agriculture........................... 42
2.4.1 Why Sustainable Agriculture....... ...............42
2.4.2 How to Make Agriculture Sustainable.... .... ... .... 43 
2.4.3 Bioeconomy and Food Security. ...... ...... .......46
2.5 Bioeconomy and Industry.......... ............ ........47
2.5.1 Bioeconomy and the Energy Industry ............ .... 48
2.5.2 Bioeconomy and the Chemical Industry .... ..... ..... 48 
2.5.3 Bioeconomy and the Forest Industry... ....... ....... 49 
2.6 Challenges Facing the Transition to Bioeconomy . ..... ...... . 50 
References ............................................. 51 
 
3 Biomass: The Sustainable Core of Bioeconomy................55

3.1 Introduction ........................................ 55
3.2 What Is Biomass? ................................... 56
3.3 BiomassClassification....... ......... ................57
3.3.1Woody Biomass... ..... .... ...................57
3.3.2 Herbaceous Biomass............................ 59
3.3.3 Aquatic Biomass....... ........................60
3.3.4 Wastes and Residues ...... .... ......... .........61
3.4 Biomass Composition ...... ................... ........61
3.4.1Cellulose........ ..... .... ..... ......... ..... .62
3.4.2 Hemicellulose .................................62
3.4.3 Lignin .......... .................... .........63
3.4.4 Starch....................................... 64
3.4.5 Proteins..... ....... ....... ....... ........... 66
3.4.6 Lipids....................................... 67
3.4.7 Chitin and Chitosan ............................. 72
3.5 Concluding Remarks................................. 72
References ............................................. 75
 
4 Biofuels and Bioenergy.................................. 79 

4.1 Introduction ........................................ 79
4.2 Bioethanol......................................... 81
4.2.1 Bioethanol Feedstocks ........ ...................81
4.2.2 Biomass-to-Ethanol Conversion Processes ............ 97
4.3 Biodiesel........... ...............................111
4.3.1 Biodiesel Characteristics ......................... 111
4.3.2 Biodiesel Feedstocks..... .... ..... ......... .....112
4.3.3 Biomass-to-Biodiesel Conversion Processes ......... 115 
4.4 Gas from Renewable Biomass... ............ ............119
4.4.1 Biogas................................. .....120
4.4.2 Biological Synthetic Gas (Bio-Syngas) . .............. 123
References ............................................. 126
 
5 Biochemicals....... .... ... ....... .... .... ... .... ... .... 141

5.1 Introduction ........................................ 141
5.2 Fine Chemicals:Organic Acids.. .... .... .... .... ... ..... 142
5.2.1 Glycolic Acid(GA)............................. 143
5.2.2 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid (3-HPA) ........ .......... 144
5.2.3 Succinic Acid(SA)............................. 145
5.2.4 Production Data for Selected Organic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . 147 
5.3 Pharmaceuticals from Biomass..... .......... ...........147
5.3.1 Aspirin from Wood...... ....... .... ............147
5.3.2 Bioactive Compounds from the Sea: Chitinand Chitosan ................... 147 
5.3.3 Pharmaceutical Enzymes......................... 150
5.3.4 Antibiotics and Bacteriocins... .... ..... ..... ......152 
5.3.5 Vitamins..................................... 152
5.4 Biocosmetics............ .......... .................156
5.4.1 Cosmetic Ingredients from Biowastes: Antioxidants ..... 156 
5.4.2 Cosmetic Ingredients from the Sea:Chitin andCollagen. . . 158 
5.5 Fuel Additives from Platform Biomolecules ..... ........... . 159
5.5.1 Additives from Bioglycerol....................... 159
5.5.2 Additives from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) . . . . . . . 161 
5.6 Food Additives ... ....... ...... ....... ...............162
5.6.1 Sweeteners:Xylitol....... ......................162
5.6.2 Flavoring Agents: Vanillin........................ 164
5.7 Biopesticides............ .......... .................168
5.7.1 Chemical Pesticide vs. Biopesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 
5.7.2 Pesticides from Plants and Microbes... ....... ....... 169 
References ............................................. 173 
 
6 Biomaterials...........................................185

6.1 Introduction ........................................ 185
6.2 Pulp and Paper . ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... ... ..... ... ... 186 
6.2.1 Conventional Pulping Technologies ..... ............ 187
6.2.2 Emerging Pulping Technologies......... .... ... .... 190
6.2.3 Pulp and Paper from Non-wood Bioresources ..... ..... 191 
6.2.4 Pulp and Paper from Agro-Industrial Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . 194 
6.3 Bioplastics......................................... 195
6.3.1 Bioplastics from Carbohydrates... ..... ..... .......196
6.3.2 Bioplastics from Lipids...................... ....197
6.3.3 Bioplastics from Proteins ....... ...... ..... .......198
6.3.4 Bioplastics from CombinedSources .............. ... 199
6.3.5 Bioplastics from Bacteria ....... .... ... .... ... .... 200
6.4 Biochars and Activated Carbons ................... ......202
6.4.1 Biochars from Bioresources and Organic Wastes . . . . . . . . 202 
6.4.2 Activated Carbons: Activation and Characteristics . . . . . . 206 
6.4.3 Applications of Biochars and Activated Carbons . . . . .... 212 
References ............................................. 218 
 
7 Biorefineries:Industrial-Scale Production Paving the Way for Bioeconomy.......... 233 

7.1 Introduction ........................................ 233
7.2 Biorefineries: Green Production Facilities .................. 234
7.2.1 Historical Background........ ............ .......234
7.2.2 Biorefineries Versus Petroleum Re.neries ........... .. 236
7.2.3 Major Categories of Biorefineries ... .... .... ... .... . 238 
7.3 Implementation of Integrated Biorefineries . . .... .... ... .... 246 
7.3.1 Implementation Designs of Biorefineries . . ...... ..... . 246 
7.3.2 Obstacles Facing the Implementation of Biorefineries . . . . 250 
7.4 Biorefining Technologies: Green Production Processes . . . . . . . . . 255 
7.4.1BALITM.Process(Borregaard, Norway).. .... ..... .... 256 
7.4.2 RTPTM. Technology (Envergent Technologies, Canada/United States)............... 258 
7.5 Outlook..... ...................................... 260
References ............................................. 261
 
8 Implementing the Bioeconomy on the Ground: An International Overview. ....... ...271 

8.1 Introduction ........................................ 271
8.2 Bioeconomy in the United States... ....... ....... ........272
8.2.1 Strategic Vision of the Largest Economy in the World . . . 273 
8.2.2 Resources and Opportunities . .... ...... ..... ......276 
8.2.3 Industrial Study Cases.... .... .... .... ....... .... 278
8.3 Bioeconomy in Europe...... ..........................281
8.3.1 Strategic Visions in Europe....................... 282
8.3.2 Governance and Coordination.......... .... ... .... 287
8.3.3 Resources and Potentialities . .... ... .... ... .... .... 289 
8.3.4 Industrial Study Cases: The Finnish Experience . . . . . . . . 292 
8.4 Bioeconomy in China................................. 296
8.4.1 Strategic Vision in China... ..... ................ .297
8.4.2 Biomass Resourcesin China...................... 298
8.4.3 Industrial Biorefining Companies ..... ....... ....... 303
8.5 Outlook..... ...................................... 303
References ............................................. 306
 
9 Bioeconomy: Multidimensional Impacts and Challenges. ..... ... 317 

9.1 Sustainability ....................................... 317
9.1.1 Sustainable Development and Bioeconomy .... .... .... 318 
9.1.2 Challenges to Sustainability ........ ........ .......319
9.1.3 Evaluating the Sustainability of Bioproducts and Biorefineries ..............321 
9.2 Environmental Considerations .................... .......324
9.2.1 Greenhouse Gas(GHG)Emissions ........ ..........325
9.2.2 Land-UseChange....... ........... ............326
9.2.3 Biodiversity.................................. 328
9.3 Social Reflections ....................................329
9.3.1 Employment.... ........ .............. ........330
9.3.2 Food Security................................. 331
9.3.3 Menacing Threat of Corruption.... ..... ..... ......333 
9.4 Final Remarks and Conclusions ......................... 334
References ............................................. 336

生物经济发展研究中心编自:Springer International Publishing AG, 2017.
(http://www.springer.com/978-3-319-55635-2 )